Ephemeroptera: Caenidae of Gunnison County, Colorado
Caenis amica - Small Squaregill MayflyHagen 1861
Updated 6 May 2013
Photos, Map, Museum specimens, DNA - Barcodinglife.org
Map - Kondratieff, Boris C. (coordinator). 2000. Mayflies of the United States. Jamestown, ND: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Online. (Version 12DEC2003). http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/distr/insects/mfly/usa/152.htm
ReferencesEdmunds Jr, GF. 1995 Habitat differences between northern and southern populations of mayflies of the western United States. Pages 171-176 in Corkum LD; Ciborowski JJH. Current Directions in Research on Ephemeroptera. Canadian Scholars' Press, Inc. Toronto.
Hagen,HA 1861 Synopsis of the Neuroptera of North America with a list of South American species. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 4, 1-344.
Hagen described Caenis amica for the first time in this publication. Hagen's Glossary (pdf)
McCafferty,WP; Durfee,RS and Kondratieff,BC 1993 Colorado mayflies (Ephemeroptera): an annotated inventory. Southwestern Naturalist 38 3, 252-274. PDF
Quote from page 268 "Colorado is one of the few areas in North America from which this ubiquitous species had been previously unreported (Provonsha, 1990)." The authors also mention at the end of their discussion of Faunisitics that C. amica is one of "those mayfly species that are truly widespread in North America"
McCafferty,WP and Provonsha, AV The Mayflies of North America Species List http://www.entm.purdue.edu/entomology/research/mayfly/species.html (Version 8Feb2011)
Here is the geographic range and synonyms:
Caenis amica Hagen, 1861 [CAN:NE,NW;MEX:SW;USA:FN,NE,NW,SE,SW] * Caenis simulans McDunnough, 1931 (syn.)
McDunnough,J 1931 New species of North American Ephemeroptera. Canadian Entomologist 63, 82-93.
Discussed as Caenis simulans
Provonsha,AV 1990 A revision of the genus Caenis in North America (Ephemeroptera: Caenidae). Transactions of American Entomological Society 116, 801-884.
Wang T-Q; McCafferty WP and Bae YJ. 1997. Sister relationship of the Neoephemeridae and Caenidae (Ephemeroptera: Pannota). Entomological News 108:52-56.
Webb,JM; Jacobus,LM; Funk,DH; Zhou,X; Kondratieff,BC; Geraci,CJ; DeWalt,RE Baird,DJ Richard,B Philips,I and Hebert,PDN 2012 A DNA barcode library for North American Ephemeroptera: Progress and prospects. PloS One 7(5): e38063 HTML
Under the section titles "Barcode Distances between Species", the authors state: "Among Caenis amica Hagen, C. punctata McDunnough, and C. youngi Roemhild, the interspecific distances were as low as 0.3% (maximum intraspecific distances ranged from 3.7–21.9% and none of the species were monophyletic), possibly an artifact of incomplete taxonomic knowledge or historical introgression. For nearly all other species, the minimum interspecific distances were much greater (mean: 12.5%)." In other words these three species may actually be one, but further collecting and DNA analysis is nessecary to answer this question.
Brown, WS 2005 Ephemeroptera of Gunnison County, Colorado